This is the area in between the cells, and that swelling causes some pain and damage. It also creates the nitrogens that build up to form the amino acid bonds to become depleted. So we get into what's called a negative nitrogen balance. This is often seen as metabolic acidosis. This negative nitrogen balance then has to be compensated for by increased stores of muscle energy, and this expanded store of muscle energy then becomes the impetus for increases in muscular size. Our body responds to meet the demand, and the workout muscle damage with that swelling happens after a few days.
Again the repair is significant because if the fix does not occur, then we don't get positive nitrogen balance. Without this, we can't grow that muscle. So it's essential to have enough amino acid in the form of protein intake to counter the negative nitrogen balance that happens when we break down our muscles due to increased workload either through higher volume or more sets and reps, or higher weight lifted.
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So we want to teeter that nitrogen balance or the local amino acid pool to the positive. Besides the general adaptation syndrome, the fitness-fatigue model helps us understand the way we respond by watching our heart rate respond to our workout and then recover. This fitness-fatigue model suggests that once we handle stress our heart will respond, and the quicker we recover, the sooner we will be able to do the next set.
So, often we will work up to a heart rate of or beats per minute during our sets and reps, and then we recover to a heart rate of about beats per minute. This recovery usually takes one to three minutes depending on our fitness level. Once we recover, we're ready for the next set. Now, why is this crucial for muscle growth? This is important for muscle growth because if we want to fatigue the soft muscle tissue by using its energy, we must use up the muscle energy stores called muscle glycogen.
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And from there we then need to stress it so that we've depleted those stores with muscular fatigue and allow them to recover. Therefore, this muscular fatigue will enable you to recognize when to stop. You feel your muscles are getting heavy, burning, and tired.
When you feel fresh or at least recovered, you are ready to go. So through the fitness-fatigue model, the heart rate is relatively easy to track with lots of different devices and heart rate monitors, etc. The ability to track heart rate is easily accessible. You know there are lots of ways to do that, but the notion is that if we can watch our heart rate behavior, we then see whether we're ready for the next set. One way of training is called EMOM every minute on the minute training which can be effective. The EMOM program prescribes workouts of two or three continuous exercises of eight to ten reps and recovery, but new exercises are paired after each cycle, so you don't overwork one muscle group.
This can last ten to thirty minutes. It takes some forethought, but it is taxing.
Also, circuit training, Tabata, or bodyweight training with a working set of 20 to 30 seconds followed by a recovery of 20 to 30 seconds is sufficient. These are all kinds of training techniques that are designed to help with local muscle fatigue so that when you have to increase the enhanced fitness effect that allows our body to do more work in less time or more efficiently in a set.
By doing more work, we will enable the muscle to gain muscle glycogen and store more energy. The idea is, as we become more fit we take less time to recover , and we take more stored muscle energy into our cells, and the muscles swell through repair, storage, and water. We make less time also to get to our target heart rate which is usually, as I said previously, somewhere in the s and s just depending on your age and your fitness level. By changing my program in some simple ways, I can help with muscle growth again.
Muscle growth is partly determined by the fiber type you're working. So for instance, if I'm working my calves they are largely type 1 fibers which mean they are designed to go farther and longer and consistently but not as forcefully as other muscles. Other muscles such as our biceps or triceps, which are more fast twitch and generate more force but only for a limited amount of time.
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The other thing that must happen during muscle growth as we are trying to get bigger is we have to have a continued commitment to consistency of the program. You are impatient and want to get bigger, but it happens slowly. So to stay with your program, and your train of thought, as you work out is important. Bodybuilders will talk about the mind-muscle connection and really what that means is maintaining motivation and intensity for the right amount of weight you're lifting and the total number of sets.
Nutrition and rest are essential during this process. Muscle gains likely occur at about. This is critical because we all know that you've read a million different books but simple nutrition, simple rest and recovery processes are in place that can help us respond to what we want to achieve with muscle growth. So what are the basics of how muscles grow? Well, the first notion of how muscles grow is this idea of mechanical loading. We'll talk more in-depth about it; mechanical loading refers to this idea of putting stress on the muscle and how that tissue responds.
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Then greater time under tension helps as well. Local metabolic acidosis, when it occurs, also facilitates this notion of protein synthesis during muscular pump. We see local hypoxia, and we'll talk all about that and then the total volume of workouts as it increases. You'll also notice that muscular swelling, cellular swelling, and muscle growth will occur. And again, it's not just swelling, its functional changes within the muscle, but it results in enhanced muscle growth. When a muscle is told to lift weights, it gets stressed. For instance, as we begin to move through it's extended to it's short contracted form, think of working on a mechanical assembly line.
The muscle has a duty cycle of work and relaxation. When working out with limited rest, the muscle gets fatigued and thus will need to grow. A muscle is only as strong as its weakest link and the longer the muscle, the more strength you will need to be stressed entirely throughout a range of motion. We hear a lot in current bodybuilding about partial repetitions , and you see this also in powerlifting.
In reality, mechanical loading of the muscle is done best through the complete range of motion because we are often said to grow most at her weakest links. So let's keep that in mind as well. When a muscle is mechanically loaded there is a stressor, through tension during lengthening and shortening, at the ends of the muscle itself and the little muscle fibers are very damaged at a minimal level. Once there is a disruption in that muscle, as we said earlier, there is this idea there's a negative nitrogen balance, a greater need for protein synthesis due to damage and swelling.
If we're going to repair those broken myofibrils or intracellular fluid that seep out into the interstitial outside the muscle cell , we then need to have some repair. That typically happens to muscular swelling or pro-inflammatory markers followed by, within several hours or few days, anti-inflammatory markers that come in and help support the repair and rebuilding of that muscle cell. There's also strain and torque on ligaments and tendons.
These stresses and strains on the ligaments and tendons also signal the muscle that it must repair and prepare for the new loads that it will experience. If you want to stress the muscle you have to focus on that idea of mind-muscle connection and focus on really contracting the muscle to the full range of motion. This mind-muscle relationship means that you are imagining the weight lifted and the muscle contracting while lifting this weight.
This connects the sensations with the movement and helps the muscle grower to connect with changes in the muscle sensing fatigue and strain.
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This enhances contractile force and helps with injury prevention. The other thing is that you need different angles. It's also known as pennation , or angle of pull. To attack the muscles with different mechanical loads through various angles of loading, we see an adaptation of that muscle through multiple planes of movement.
Again, when we talk about planes of motion, these refer to angles of movement. Several factors relate to how we adapt to those mechanical modes: age and training status all affect the individual, but we know the neural patterns are laid down, and they're relatively streamlined within two to three weeks as we become more efficient. That's great for human adaptation; that's bad for muscle growth. So what we need to do then is stress the muscle at different angles so that we can come to a consensus of stressing the muscle overall and not just from one specific perspective of that tissue where it becomes very efficient and uses less muscle force to the same movement.
The key point here is, therefore, if you become too entrenched in one muscle movement pattern your muscles become very efficient and use less muscle force to complete the same amount of weight. Good for us, but bad for our muscle growth. Time under tension refers to the notion that many scientists early on came up with by looking at rodent and avian models where were the muscle was placed under stress, or weight was placed at the end of a muscle, and it was allowed to continue to live, and the muscle would grow in size. Thus, the notion arose that the longer muscle stayed under tension, the more it grew.
Now again this was in avian and rodent studies and not always when these muscles attached to the animal. You add testosterone and growth hormone properties combined with cortisol, which is a breaking down the agent of muscle, and the result is recovery is enhanced. Some scientists recently suggested that maybe the acute responses of hormones aren't quite as significant as some of the metabolic acidosis, or intrinsic properties, of the muscle but the jury's still out on that. We do know for sure that repair happens to the cellular matrix, so there's remodeling an enlargement when the muscle spends time under tension.
There's also the notion of what about all these different sets, like, pause sets, or overload sets, or isometrics in between to keep the muscle tension building. You do need some continued muscular tension for there to be a true hypertrophic, or muscle growth, response. That leads us to something else, do muscles grow in size or the number of muscle fibers? In most human studies it's been found that muscles grow in size almost singularly more than what we call hyperplasia, growing in number response because in humans cells it takes quite a bit of strain before hyperplasia can happen.
Greater metabolic acidosis refers to the notion that when we have short rest periods, and we continue to do work, our muscles swell. Why do they swell? They swell because we've damaged the cell membranes, we've gotten the plasma that seeps out in the interstitial spaces, and as time moves on, we find more and more swelling and pro-inflammatory hormones which limit the range of motion.
It's a protective mechanism, and then we find the anti-inflammatory response that occurs later. High volume training cycled with moderate volume training seems to exploit the process meaning, as I become more stressed through these higher volumes of work - more sets and more reps - the process of recovery becomes important.
So often multiple sets, three or five sets with higher reps, eight all the way to 20 with short rest periods, seem to be important here as well because remember, we're trying to deplete local muscle glycogen. If we were trying to deplete our aerobic energy system , we would in most aerobic training; we would want overall systemic ATP energy production. That happens with metabolism in what we call slow twitch fiber type 1 fiber.
Now we're also trying to grow muscle we want type 1 as well as type 2 fiber to grow in size, but it's the type 2 fibers or the fast twitch fibers that seem to grow most and show the most exaggerated adaptation. Too much work and we cannot adapt either. When too much metabolic stress or acidosis occurs without recovery, we reach a state of overtraining. This results in all those negative things like muscle soreness, again muscle soreness isn't always a bad thing , but if we don't have enough recovery time we do tend to see this notion of overtraining.
You don't want to get into that state. If you can't recover, then you can't train. That becomes a significant variable that we see with muscle growth. Often people think that if one or two or ten sets are good, then 20 sets are better. We work toward metabolic acidosis. How do I feel when I start to have metabolic acidosis?
I start to feel the burn. This is not a lactic acid burn. That is something completely different. We now know through science that it's not lactic acid it's more metabolic acidosis or ATP hydrolysis that seems to happen. Suffice to say this science occurs so that we can have this next idea which is called local hypoxia.
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These aren't hard guidelines. In reality, you need to eat whatever actually supports growth. You can gain even faster than this and hypothetically get even more muscle gain maybe , but the cost is way more fat gain. Im cutting atm, Im at kg was at 90kg winterbulk peak. I try to eat kalories. Worked so far. I try to not fiddle with details when I cant see the whole picture yet, sure I feel like I could eat less but there are delicious carrots and quark to be had.
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Routine critique requirements Welcome to Reddit, the front page of the internet. Become a Redditor and join one of thousands of communities. Want to add to the discussion? Post a comment! Create an account. Keep up the good work. LOL and Touche. Theoretically , not realistically. A beginners program that is often recommended here.
Also pretty sure that is well above lb. Getting Started with Fitness. Muscle Building Weight Loss Recommended Workout Routines. Frequently Asked Questions. Additional Resources. No threads that are answered by the Wiki, searching, or Google. Be respectful, civil, and charitable. Real Results. Our Gyms. UP London Mayfair. UP London City. UP Sydney.
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