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The Complete Collections. Text by Susannah Frankel. Lakota America. A New History of Indigenous Power. Pekka Hamalainen. Wassily Kandinsky; Translated and with an introduction by Elizabeth R. Edited by Carl Phillips. Rebecca Shaykin. Oblivion or Glory. David Stafford. Gordon Bunshaft and SOM. Building Corporate Modernism.

Nicholas Adams. Falling Felines and Fundamental Physics. Gregory J. Gauguin Atlas. Nienke Denekamp. FALL Browse all Seasonal Catalogs. Browse all Subject Catalogs. Browse all Special Catalogs. From the Blog Why We Read by Azar Nafisi Reading is like Alice running after that white rabbit, because she is curious; she wants to know more about a talking rabbit. Read more. He was a very charismatic character as well. It was pretty damn bad. For years black bodybuilders could never win the Mr. America competition. That was out of the realm. Dobbins: Joe Weider and Arnold had a mutual respect with a certain degree of conflict.

That is, Arnold was the only bodybuilder who really knew how to handle Joe Weider. I think they both realistically understood the degree to which they were mutually dependent. Parks and Rec. As the crew figured out ways to make money to support themselves financially, they lifted together, ate together, partied together. Drasin: Back then the weight pen on Venice Beach was just a little chain-link fence and a platform. There was a big sandy area where you could lay in the sun and work on your tan. I must ask you out on a date. That started it. We were together, on and off but mostly on, for six years.

We go visit your space machine? Working out they have these endorphins cascading their bodies. It was a kind of paradise. That sense of physical well-being and pure physical pleasure was a big part of that scene. Bill Pettis bodybuilder : I had like 10 girlfriends. Giuliani: Nobody had money. There was no money in bodybuilding. I was an electrician for a while, and then I went to work for the phone company. I had a family. Drasin: I was training to stay in shape for pro wrestling. Superstar Billy Graham and S. Morris: A lot of bodybuilders made food money and protein-powder money doing private exhibitions for older gay men.

It was prevalent. Baker: The guys called them assignations. That would be when a wealthy gay doctor, or whatever, would come to the gym and pick up on a bodybuilder who was heterosexual. You would never think of him like that. Part of it was that bodybuilding was seen as this vain exercise that attracted this taboo element. The other part of it was, they were afraid it would affect their income in the gyms and all.

Physicians and trainers initially pooh-poohed their efficacy, but the athletes and weightlifters who dared to experiment with them saw immediate and tangible results. By the mids, every major competitive bodybuilder—including Schwarzenegger, as he has admitted publicly—incorporated steroids into their training regimens.

Until passage of the Anabolic Steroids Control Act of , steroids were not classified as a controlled substance.

Saxe: There was two schools of thought. Olympia ], if they wanted to be at the top, they had to be on the drugs. No question. Health was at the forefront. No one really talked about it. Nobody really knew what anybody else was taking. It was like this big secret. Giuliani: Nobody wanted to believe that a pill could enhance your athletic ability. It makes you lift a lot of iron in the gym, and the next day with the juice you can recover.

What do you need to do to win? An athlete will do anything short of killing himself to win. In other words, bigger, stronger, faster. Grant: Most people think we did them all the time. We only did it just before the show—maybe a couple months out. We were engaged with bodybuilding. We ate good, we trained hard. That was like 10 percent, to finish off the program.

Look at the pictures of us in the off-season. All of us look kinda flat. We had no delts, no pecs. We were just training on our own.

4.1. Types of Societies

We were getting big on our own. Brainum: There was no growth hormone, no insulin, in those days. The dosages they used back then—the guys today would laugh hysterically at how small they were. One side of the waiting room was pregnant mothers and kids, the other side was bodybuilders. Giuliani: Guys would drive down to Mexico with a broad and a kid. The Mexican connection. Gaines: It was something they had to do. You could be as gifted as Arnold genetically and you could work as hard as Arnold did, but without steroids, you were never going to beat Arnold.

Coe: If you eliminated anabolic steroids for a contest, and the curtains would open, guess how many people would be standing onstage? Morris: Doing drugs was part of the Woodstock generation: smoking pot, experimenting with LSD, taking steroids. Yorton: Why drugs? It took me like seven years to win the Mr. America and Mr. Universe title. People want it right now.

Chapter 15. Religion

They sacrifice their health and well being for an easy fix. Baker: Once they stopped taking them, there would be a noticeable downer. Arnold would get a kind of hangover. Gaines: Arnold has had health problems—heart-related—that might or might not be related to steroids. Grant: We knew there were consequences if you went crazy and did steroids all the time.

Bodybuilders today are dying like flies, and I hate to see that. You gotta work out and eat and train. It was like a ritual. Giuliani: Nobody knew anything about nutrition in those days. The only thing we did was eat. Things were real cheap. A six-egg omelet at The Germans was like a buck and a half. Morris: A guy named Bob Gajda—a very nerdy fellow—got on a desiccated liver kick where he was taking pills a day.

Because of him, the rest of us started taking desiccated liver pills a day. You have to feed your body, not starve it. Morris: We all ate tuna fish. One day, I realized that I had been chewing the same mouthful of tuna fish for a half-hour. How the fuck am I going to get this tuna fish down? My protein drink—which consisted of eggs and desiccated liver powder and milk—was sitting there, so I dumped the tuna fish into it and mixed it up and chugged it. So, yeah. In , Joe Gold decided to return to the Merchant Marines.

He started looking for a buyer for the gym. He made real good money as a chief boatswain on these ships that would go around South America. Joe owned the building and he owned the land. He made no money. It was like the honor system. We tried to do some changes. The last year I opened it up to women. Two women joined. One was a camera operator in Hollywood. The other one was a tall, Scandinavian woman, hippie-type broad. She had a giant dog that went everywhere with her. Sutter: I loved the gym. It was so rugged. I had a Great Dane. I used to take my showers there even though I was the only woman in the gym.

No one bothered me because the dog would be outside. Saxe: We were eking it out the whole time. I had no business experience. I was an engineer. Sprague was a recent transplant from Cincinnati. Arthur Jones [inventor of the Nautilus fitness machines] turned it down.

Breaking Down Iron Man's Most Savage Moments

Dobbins: Ken is an amazing guy. He made his own rules. He was not gay. He was gay for pay. As Dakota, he was a huge male porno star. Coe: Ken Sprague was a great marketing guy. Dobbins: Ken was a good businessman. He promoted the gym. Joe Gold never promoted anything. Joe Gold would just as soon kick you out as look at you. Coe: Sprague was the first guy to sell T-shirts. That created a buzz.

Waller: I went to a nightclub in San Francisco one weekend. There was a band with a [musician] who had a tight T-shirt on and a shaved head. Go get yourself a Mr. Clean bottle and make it look like Mr. Drasin: I took the design to this place on Venice Boulevard, and they printed up a couple dozen. They sold out and we printed up some more. Pretty soon it became THE shirt. Grant: Remember the Mr. America parade that Ken Sprague organized in Santa Monica [in ]?

It started on Wilshire and came down as far as Main Street. We had a big float, we had elephants, and we had Mae West. They sold so many T-shirts at that parade, they were putting money in the drawers. They were stuffing bills into bags. It was a boon, man. Sprague: That got us press from all over. The Hollywood Reporter sent their social columnist—George Christy—to do a write-up.

That same year, Gaines and George Butler, a photographer friend, were assigned to write a feature about bodybuilding for Sports Illustrated. Gaines: George and I struck up a friendship with Mike Katz, one of the top bodybuilders. The next fall we spent a lot of time interviewing Arnold and also getting to know Franco. This is worth more than a story.

So, Charles and I got an appointment with Sandy Richardson, the head of Doubleday, to pitch a documentary book about bodybuilding. Nobody cares about bodybuilders except gay guys and other bodybuilders. Gaines: Bob Datilla, a literary agent whose only client was [novelist-poet] Jim Harrison, thought the idea was great.

He listened to our rap without saying a word. They were able to recognize the specialness of what they were looking at. Gaines: The book introduced bodybuilding as an interesting, if not serious, topic. It broke them out of the closet. It did two things: it introduced him to a larger audience before the movie came out as this charming, offbeat character.

More importantly, because Arnold was so smooth and sophisticated and palatable, it cast a much friendlier light on bodybuilding than had ever been done before. Olympia contest, Butler and Gaines began production on the movie version. All my crew wanted to focus on Frank Zane. I had done the book and I knew that Arnold was a natural star.

Sprague: I owned a motion-picture soundstage in Hollywood, so I knew something about production. I told Butler that he could run his cables and leave them and keep his lights up on the ceiling, so anytime he wanted to he could walk in and start filming. What do you see on Arnold and everybody else?

Giuliani: For months they were there. The movie never ends. It had a comic-book approach in creating bigger-than-life personal struggles and setting the stage for the stardom of a select few. To make it more dramatic, they said they needed some sort of a villain. Butler: To a certain extent we pumped up the dramatic tension between Arnold and Lou [Ferrigno].

I was very influenced by the non-fiction novels that were being published in the early s. Ferrigno: The father-son thing was played up in the film, so you could see the tension between us. He had never trained me before, but for the movie he stepped in. He was like a stage father. Gaines: The movie was a star vehicle for Arnold, and Lou to a lesser extent. Zane: Pumping Iron put bodybuilding on the map. Now there was a way you could actually make a living as a professional bodybuilder. There was more publicity. Bodybuilding was on network television. Years later, Schwarzenegger bought all the footage , the photos, and the rights to Pumping Iron.

Saxe: Why? Why not? It cost him—for Arnold—a pittance. He chose a youthful Jeff Bridges for the lead with Sally Field as his romantic interest. Drasin: Arnold took me on one of his first auditions in Burbank.

Steven Spielberg on Ready Player One and Nostalgia | Collider

The producer and the director are watching him and laughing. Bob is sitting between Arnold and me. All of us were too close to see where it could go. Just like Butler and Gaines, they recognized the specialness of this. Brainum: Arnold was an introverted guy, but somehow he picked up the idea of projecting the way he wanted to be. He turned himself into this super extrovert where he was able to joke and come off with a big personality, make fun of himself.

People loved this guy because they saw this giant muscle guy who had a sense of humor and was self-deprecating. The strange thing was, he became what he was trying to be. He became that extroverted, super-confident person. It was an act, but nobody caught on. Schwarzenegger won a Golden Globe award for Stay Hungry. He was profiled in Rolling Stone and appeared on seemingly every talk show. Besides training, he was also taking business classes, studying English, and setting his sights on the future.

Brainum: Arnold has all these stories where he laid bricks when he first came over here. He gave the impression that he did it for several years. He did it, but only for a short period. Arnold was not the kind of guy to do manual labor, trust me. Franco: Arnold and I formed a little construction company called European Bricklaying. Very big name. Just build the wall tomorrow. I was a seamstress, a socializer, a cook, and a masseuse, not by profession but I gravitated to all those domestic things.

I thought I was a really great catch for him, and I was sure that this was something he would want forever—until he got to the next level, where he wanted to ascend to a more moneyed world. Balik: In bodybuilding we had never seen anybody combine personality with physique. The classic political animal. We went to go eat lunch and parked in a parking lot.

There was an old man watching the parking lot. He had a little sadistic streak to his humor.

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We would get into fights about it. It was like, how could you have said that to that person? What are you thinking? But there is a part of him that is such a good guy. Meanwhile, Joe Gold had returned to Southern California and decided that he wanted to return to the gym business. That set up a conflict between Sprague, supported by Joe Weider, and Gold, supported by Schwarzenegger.

Joe realized that he made a big mistake selling the name. Sprague: I could see where Joe was peeved. Then he started building what would become World Gym. There was a lot of tension in terms of who was going to control bodybuilding. Uretz: All of a sudden Arnold was a hot commodity. Sprague: I felt sorry for Joe. All he wanted was his own gym. So, we allowed him to open World Gym [on Main Street in Santa Monica], but he was not allowed to have a picture taken there for a period of several years. That blocked World Gym from the media because bodybuilding, if anything, is a pictorial endeavor.

Brainum: The main impetus [for starting World Gym], the major motivation, was revenge. It just drove him crazy. It really bothered him. He looked at it like a loyalty thing. We were loyal to Joe. I need a logo. Ferrigno: Joe needed help to move the equipment upstairs when he opened World Gym. If Joe has something he wants, you do it.

Saxe: He dutifully took care of his wife to the end. I saw him pushing her in a wheelchair in front of my house. You may say a lot of things about Kenny Sprague, but he did it proper. Sprague: Pete Grymkowski, who was one of the top bodybuilders, was helping Maryon with running the gym on a day-to-day basis. Maryon really liked Pete. I felt he was the right person for the job if he could raise the money. World, : Ken Sprague told me that these two guys [Bob Fischer and Denny Malloy] wanted to buy it, but whoever gets him the money first gets the gym.

That day, or a day later, I put a deposit on it. I had two partners: Ed Connors and Denny Doyle. Then, after Denny bailed out, I brought Tim Kimber in. Sprague: All Pete bought was a name—which by now was extraordinary—and some broken-down equipment. We heard that he was going to triple our rent. Hart To Hart , the TV show, wanted to use the gym for an episode.

Robert Wagner hurt his back and they had to come back. Then they had come back again and again. Between the move and the build-out we were strapped financially. The TV production people moved all our equipment to the new location with their trucks. From their headquarters at Hampton Drive in Venice, the new owners introduced an entirely different business model for fitness clubs: franchising.

He had basically a blue-collar worker mind-set. He did not envision the growth of the gym business. He thought it would be this small clique forever, with a couple of hardcore knucklehead bodybuilders.