Liu Biao treated Liu Bei with respect and put him in charge of Xinye. After uniting the north, Cao Cao, who had declared himself the Prime Minister, led his troops to attack southern China. Sun Quan agreed to the alliance and Zhuge Liang stayed in Jiangdong as a temporary advisor. Zhou Yu felt that Zhuge Liang would become a future threat to East Wu and tried several times to kill Zhuge, but failed. Zhou Yu was extremely unhappy about this and reported the matter to Sun Quan.
Sun Quan used new strategies suggested by Zhou Yu to take Jingzhou. One of these was the Beauty Scheme, in which Sun Quan lured Liu Bei to Jiangdong by offering him marriage to his younger sister, plotting to hold Liu Bei hostage and exchange his freedom for Jingzhou. Zhou Yu, fuming with anger, tried to come up with other strategies to take Jingzhou, failed time and time again. The third time, he hemorrhaged even more, and died unconscious.
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Liu Bei now ruled a vast area of land from Jingzhou to Sichuan in the west, which later served as a strong foundation for the founding of the Kingdom of Shu-Han. Sun Quan and Cao Cao were also at war resulting in defeats and victories for both sides at the battles of Ruxu and Hefei. The situation among the three major powers had almost reached a stalemate when Cao Cao died of a brain tumor.
Cao Pi proclaimed himself emperor and renamed his dynasty Cao Wei. In response to this, Liu Bei declared himself Emperor of Shu-Han to signify that he still carried on the bloodline of the Han royal family, but was based in Shu. He made peace with Cao Pi and was given the title of Prince of Wu.
Sun Quan took advantage of the situation and sent Lu Meng to seize Jingzhou. During the retreat after his army had been scattered, Guan Yu was captured by Lu Meng and brought before Sun Quan, who ordered him to be executed. Liu Bei was deeply grieved at the loss of Jingzhou and the death of Guan Yu. He was planning to avenge Guan Yu when he heard that his other sworn brother, Zhang Fei, had been murdered in his sleep by his subordinates, who had fled to Eastern Wu. Upon hearing the news, Liu Bei fainted, and swore to avenge them.
The invasion was crushed by strong Wu resistance, coupled with an outbreak of plague. Zhuge Liang refused to do so, and swore that he would remain faithful to the trust that Liu Bei had for him. Zhuge Liang successfully deployed the Shu troops and caused the five armies to retreat without shedding a single drop of blood. In one of his final strokes of brilliance, Zhuge Liang personally led the Shu troops to subdue the southern barbarian king Meng Huo of the Nanman tribe.
The barbarian troops were no match for the Shu troops and Zhuge Liang captured Meng Huo seven times by using cunning strategies. The first six times, Meng Huo complained that he had been captured by trickery, and had no chance to fight a real battle with the Shu troops. Zhuge Liang agreed to let him go every time, allowing him to come back again for another battle.
At this time, Cao Pi also died of illness and was succeeded by Cao Rui.
Zhuge Liang then turned his eyes northwards, and made plans to attack Wei and restore the Han Dynasty, as he had promised Liu Bei on his deathbed. However, his days were numbered and Shu was far too weak to overcome the material superiority of Wei. Zhuge Liang had always suffered from a chronic illness, which was compounded when he worked into the early hours of the morning, completing his analysis of the battlegrounds or formulating his next plan. He finally died of his illness at the Battle of Wuzhang Plains, while leading a stalemated battle against the vastly superior force of the Wei commander, Sima Yi.
As a final ploy, he set up a statue of himself to scare off Sima Yi in order to buy time for the Shu army to retreat. The long years of battle between Wei and Shu saw many changes in the ruling Cao family of Wei, which gradually grew weak after the death of Cao Rui, and Sima Yi slowly plotted to usurp the throne.
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Sima Yi used a cunning strategy to remove Cao Shuang, a powerful noble of Wei, from power and take control of Wei. In order to escape from the evil officials in the court, Jiang Wei decided to surrender his military power and went off to Tazhong. Deng Ai and his troops took a shortcut and arrived unexpected in front of Chengdu, the capital city of Shu-Han.
Liu Shan surrendered without a battle, ending the Kingdom of Shu-Han. However, he was not able to see it through. His heartache grew intolerable in the midst of the final battle, and he killed himself with a sword, marking the last stand of Shu. In East Wu, there had been internal conflict among the nobles ever since the death of Sun Quan.
Thus the Kingdom of Wei came to an end. The Three Kingdoms period concluded after almost a century of civil strife. Besides the famous "Oath of the Peach Garden," many Chinese proverbs in use today are derived from the novel:. Water Margin depicts the lives of outlaws and their defiance of the established social system. Its themes of frequent violence, brawls, passionate brotherhood and an emphasis on machismo could easily have a negative influence on young boys.
The latter presents all kinds of sophisticated strategies, deceptions, frauds, trickeries, traps and snares employed by the three kingdoms and their individual characters to compete with each other, which might tempt experienced older readers to use them to harm other people. Chinese society generally considers the elderly to be respectable, trustworthy, wise and kindhearted. According to Confucius , old people are supposed to "know the will of the heavens" and should not exhaust or strain themselves in considering how to deceive others.
Episodes from Romance of the Three Kingdoms have provided material for popular literature, drama, Beijing opera , and poetry for centuries. The story has also been made the subject of modern entertainment media, including manga , television series, and video games. A number of television series have been based on this tale. The drawing style is dark and grim, and while it keeps the main plot intact, the finer details are dramatized. Romance of the Three Kingdoms has been adapted into several comic versions in Japan, varying in levels of historical accuracy and loyalty to the original novel and popular tradition.
New World Encyclopedia writers and editors rewrote and completed the Wikipedia article in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation.
There are a total of 1B available EOS tokens, and the initial funding for the development of the EOS ecosystem is done through a token sale over the course of one year. The core team shared that the the EOS Token distribution takes place over days to provide ample time for the community to familiarize themselves with the project, as well as participate in the distribution. As of April 4th, , ,, EOS tokens have been distributed via the token sale. The current version of the EOS voting system works such that every ish seconds, all votes are counted per token holder, and the top 21 block producers are elected for that round.
This is of course a hypothesis and serves as a guide for you to build upon:. The maximum amount of votes a single delegate can receive is also: ,, This delegate has received 42,, votes from 10, voters, with an approval percentage of The effective average votes per voter for this delegate is This delegate has received 29,, votes from voters, with an approval percentage of Thus if we take this information from Lisk at face value to arrive at numbers for the EOS Block Producer candidate voting, with 1B EOS tokens, each block producer can theoretically receive 1B votes at the maximum.
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Assuming that each voter holds an average of votes, there will be around 70, voters for the 1st placed BP and 50, voters rooting for the 21st placed. Another way to calculate potential outcomes for the EOS voting procedure is to take some common sense approaches in understanding different scenarios, considering different parameters based on economic incentives. Another peril I have not shown in these models is the fact that not all 30 votes need to be deployed for each token; for example, BPs can choose to vote only for themselves and their allies.
Given enough holding volume, collusion can happen, with the top 21 belonging in the same cartel and voting for each other every round. If you do model out the effect of potential collusion, do share it with me and I can feature your model in this post.
Block producers are an integral part of the EOS. IO network. Essentially, they are decentralized entities that operate and govern the EOS blockchain on behalf of the EOS stakeholders. They provide services to the blockchain in the form of hardware for block confirmations, and growing the value of EOS through community education. Block producers will be incentivized to continue being good BPs for their constituent EOS stakeholders, as they will receive a certain percentage inflation in EOS tokens per year as their reward. That is to say, they have to stay in the BP spot so they can receive more rewards; and they are aligned in contributing to having more projects and backers of EOS so that the value of the tokens they receive will grow over time.
Some of the requirements of a good, high-performing BP are:. The EOSGo forum has decided that, as a good community member, they will not be participating in the election of Block producer candidacy to avoid any potential conflicts of interest. They have dedicated resources to evaluating different BPs based on 6 main criteria:. Since BPs are critical to the health and stability of the blockchain, the technical requirements are relatively demanding as well. The exact needs on the technical requirements front is still in the works and not decided, all the information that BPs and others in the community are talking about are still speculation and guess-estimates.
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To support the blockchain as a BP, enterprise-level set ups are necessary. The cost of maintaining such a setup is definitely not low, meaning that only those with the prerequisite monetary and technical resources can put in a competitive bid to be a BP in the first place. This could signal some form of self-selection where only wealthy token holders and consortiums can be a BP to begin with, and stand to benefit most from the BP rewards in the long run.
Additionally, we also see the potential risk of many BPs using cloud providers such as AWS and Azure, in effect centralizing the EOS infrastructure on the current oligopolistic cloud provider market, defeating the purpose of decentralization in the first place. Speaking of centralization, we can also analyze the current token holders of EOS.
Most of the major cryptocurrency wallets and exchanges that support ERC tokens have announced plans to support EOS mainnet token swap. As with other blockchain projects, the community is imperative to its long-term success.