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Yet now at last her brother was preparing to wed, and when his bride became the The twelfth anthology of short stories set in the beloved Valdemar universe, featuring stories by The twelfth anthology of short stories set in the beloved Valdemar universe, featuring stories by debut and established authors and a brand-new story from Lackey herself. The Heralds of Valdemar are the kingdom's ancient order of protectors. They are drawn from Closer to the Chest. Crossroads and Other Tales of Valdemar. An original short fiction anthology set in Mercedes Lackey's bestselling world of Valdemar-featuring heroic Heralds An original short fiction anthology set in Mercedes Lackey's bestselling world of Valdemar-featuring heroic Heralds and their horselike companions-and including an all-new novella by Lackey herself, as well as stories by masters such as Mickey Zucker Reichert, Judith Tarr, Tanya Likewise, the molecular mass of an aspirin molecule, C 9 H 8 O 4 , is the sum of the atomic masses of nine carbon atoms, eight hydrogen atoms, and four oxygen atoms, which amounts to Computing Molecular Mass for a Covalent Compound Ibuprofen, C 13 H 18 O 2 , is a covalent compound and the active ingredient in several popular nonprescription pain medications, such as Advil and Motrin.

What is the molecular mass amu for this compound? Solution Molecules of this compound are comprised of 13 carbon atoms, 18 hydrogen atoms, and 2 oxygen atoms. Following the approach described above, the average molecular mass for this compound is therefore:. Check Your Learning Acetaminophen, C 8 H 9 NO 2 , is a covalent compound and the active ingredient in several popular nonprescription pain medications, such as Tylenol. Ionic compounds are composed of discrete cations and anions combined in ratios to yield electrically neutral bulk matter.

As an example, consider sodium chloride, NaCl, the chemical name for common table salt. The formula mass for this compound is computed as Note that the average masses of neutral sodium and chlorine atoms were used in this computation, rather than the masses for sodium cations and chlorine anions.


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This approach is perfectly acceptable when computing the formula mass of an ionic compound. Even though a sodium cation has a slightly smaller mass than a sodium atom since it is missing an electron , this difference will be offset by the fact that a chloride anion is slightly more massive than a chloride atom due to the extra electron. Moreover, the mass of an electron is negligibly small with respect to the mass of a typical atom. Even when calculating the mass of an isolated ion, the missing or additional electrons can generally be ignored, since their contribution to the overall mass is negligible, reflected only in the nonsignificant digits that will be lost when the computed mass is properly rounded.

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The few exceptions to this guideline are very light ions derived from elements with precisely known atomic masses. Computing Formula Mass for an Ionic Compound Aluminum sulfate, Al 2 SO 4 3 , is an ionic compound that is used in the manufacture of paper and in various water purification processes.


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What is the formula mass amu of this compound? For purposes of computing a formula mass, it is helpful to rewrite the formula in the simpler format, Al 2 S 3 O Following the approach outlined above, the formula mass for this compound is calculated as follows:. Check Your Learning Calcium phosphate, Ca 3 PO 4 2 , is an ionic compound and a common anti-caking agent added to food products.

What is the formula mass amu of calcium phosphate? The identity of a substance is defined not only by the types of atoms or ions it contains, but by the quantity of each type of atom or ion.

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For example, water, H 2 O, and hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 , are alike in that their respective molecules are composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms. However, because a hydrogen peroxide molecule contains two oxygen atoms, as opposed to the water molecule, which has only one, the two substances exhibit very different properties.

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Today, we possess sophisticated instruments that allow the direct measurement of these defining microscopic traits; however, the same traits were originally derived from the measurement of macroscopic properties the masses and volumes of bulk quantities of matter using relatively simple tools balances and volumetric glassware. This experimental approach required the introduction of a new unit for amount of substances, the mole , which remains indispensable in modern chemical science.

The mole is an amount unit similar to familiar units like pair, dozen, gross, etc.

It provides a specific measure of the number of atoms or molecules in a bulk sample of matter. A mole is defined as the amount of substance containing the same number of discrete entities such as atoms, molecules, and ions as the number of atoms in a sample of pure 12 C weighing exactly 12 g. The mole provides a link between an easily measured macroscopic property, bulk mass, and an extremely important fundamental property, number of atoms, molecules, and so forth.

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The number of entities composing a mole has been experimentally determined to be 6. Consistent with its definition as an amount unit, 1 mole of any element contains the same number of atoms as 1 mole of any other element. The masses of 1 mole of different elements, however, are different, since the masses of the individual atoms are drastically different.

Because the definitions of both the mole and the atomic mass unit are based on the same reference substance, 12 C, the molar mass of any substance is numerically equivalent to its atomic or formula weight in amu. Per the amu definition, a single 12 C atom weighs 12 amu its atomic mass is 12 amu. This relationship holds for all elements, since their atomic masses are measured relative to that of the amu-reference substance, 12 C. Extending this principle, the molar mass of a compound in grams is likewise numerically equivalent to its formula mass in amu Figure 5. While atomic mass and molar mass are numerically equivalent, keep in mind that they are vastly different in terms of scale, as represented by the vast difference in the magnitudes of their respective units amu versus g.

To appreciate the enormity of the mole, consider a small drop of water weighing about 0. If the molecules were distributed equally among the roughly seven billion people on earth, each person would receive more than billion molecules. The mole is used in chemistry to represent 6. For example, if we know the mass and chemical composition of a substance, we can determine the number of moles and calculate number of atoms or molecules in the sample.

Deriving Moles from Grams for an Element According to nutritional guidelines from the US Department of Agriculture, the estimated average requirement for dietary potassium is 4.

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What is the estimated average requirement of potassium in moles? Solution The mass of K is provided, and the corresponding amount of K in moles is requested. Referring to the periodic table, the atomic mass of K is The given mass of K 4. The calculated magnitude 0.

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Check Your Learning Beryllium is a light metal used to fabricate transparent X-ray windows for medical imaging instruments. How many moles of Be are in a thin-foil window weighing 3. Deriving Grams from Moles for an Element A liter of air contains 9. What is the mass of Ar in a liter of air? Solution The molar amount of Ar is provided and must be used to derive the corresponding mass in grams.