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Free download. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. You can download and read online Disasters 2.0: The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management file PDF Book only if you are registered here. And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Disasters 2.0: The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management book. Happy reading Disasters 2.0: The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management Bookeveryone. Download file Free Book PDF Disasters 2.0: The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management at Complete PDF Library. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats. Here is The CompletePDF Book Library. It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Disasters 2.0: The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management Pocket Guide.

Based on this, we extract different competency questions that are then used for specifying and implementing the new three-tiers crisis model. We show that the model can successfully be used for mapping the different competency questions to the classes, properties and relations of the implemented ontology. In one of the most influential papers in the history of Software Engineering, L.

Osterweil analyzed the nature of both software and software development processes to conclude that the latter shared many characteristics with the former and, as a consequence, software development principles and techniques could be applied in the definition and exploitation of processes. Here, we do an imitation exercise to claim that emergency plans are advanced software artifacts and, hence, modern software development principles, methods, techniques and tools can be used in their development and enactment. We advocate for a change of paradigm in which the idea of emergency plans as text-based documents is replaced by that of active, complex digital objects with state and behavior that drive emergency response processes, and also several preparedness activities such as drills and training exercises.

These new plans are the result of a systematic process we call Emergency Plan Engineering. Social media use in emergency communication by Italian local level institutions by Comunello, Francesca; Mulargia, Simone May 24, — Amphi 2. We discuss the results of a research project aimed at exploring the use of social media in emergency communication by officers operating at a local level. We performed 16 semi-structured interviews with national level expert informants, and with officers operating at the municipality and province prefectures level in an Italian region.

Social media usage appears distributed over a continuum of engagement, ranging from very basic usage to using social media by adopting a broadcasting approach, to deeper engagement, which also includes continuous interaction with citizens. Among the main barriers to a broader adoption of social media, cultural considerations seem to prevail, along with the lack of personnel, a general concern toward social media communication reliability, and the perceived distance between the formal role of institutions and the informal nature of social media communication.

Rio Operations Center COR was the leading agency of Rio de Janeiro Prefecture responsible for the monitoring the Rio Olympic and Paralympic Games operations, due to its role in the prevention, monitoring, mobilization, communication, and, constant learning on the operations risk management of public services.


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Through data collected by direct observations, interviews, internal documents and access to the systems and software from COR, the planning and preparation of the IT Infrastructure and monitoring teams for the Games are analyzed. The paper explores how the systems and monitoring teams were developed and the use planned for the games, stressing the relevance of different aggregative software and the Planning Team for the integration and the communication among teams.

The complete analysis of the integrated operations of the data collected during the Games is expected to be presented in a future paper. Crowdsourced Geographic Information CGI has emerged as a potential source of geographic information in different application domains. Despite the advantages associated with it, this information lacks quality assurance, since it is provided by different people. Therefore, several authors have started investigating different methods to assess the quality of CGI. Some of the existing methods have been summarized in different classification scheme. However, there is not an overview of the methods employed to assess the quality of CGI in the absence of authoritative data.

On the basis of a systematic literature review, we found 13 methods that can be employed to this end. The aftereffects of disaster events are significant in tourist destinations where they do not only lead to destruction and casualties, but also long-lasting economic harms. The public perception causes tourists to refrain from visiting these areas and recovery of the tourist industry, a major economic sector, to become challenging.

An alternative data source that has shown great potential for information gathering in other disaster management phases, which was less considered for disaster recovery purposes, is Volunteered Geographic Information VGI. Therefore, this paper introduces a VGI-based methodology to address this task. Initial analyses conducted with Flickr data indicate a potential of VGI for recovery monitoring, whereas the analysis of OpenStreetMap data shows, that this form of VGI requires further quality assurance.

Most of these systems have remained inside the lab; the rest have disappeared entirely. Responders still prefer to do triage with paper tags from the 's, while no research has been presented on why the proposed e-triage systems have not found acceptance and use in the field. Based on exhaustive literature research and on the findings from the four-year long EU research project anonymized , this paper presents e-triage acceptance dimensions, analyzes the main reasons why proposed systems have been rejected, and guides designers towards upcoming, well-accepted e-triage systems.

Natural and man-made hazards have many unexpected consequences that concern as many heterogeneous services. For now, its best chance is to benefit from the ever growing number of available data sources. One of its goals is, therefore, to learn how to manage numerous, heterogeneous, more or less reliable data, in order to interpret them, in time, for the officials. The result consists on a situation model in the shape of a common operational picture. This paper describes every stage of modelling from the raw data selection, to the use of the situation model itself. In emergency domain, experts must make decisions both usual and unusual.

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These decisions lead to unpredictable impacts, causing the need for these experts to deal with impacts mitigation. Unexpected need of impacts mitigation consists in an overload of material resources and expert cognitive capacity. After decision making, impacts mitigation demands valuable expert efforts. To address this problem, this paper proposes a decision impact projection in early stages of emergency management, during planning stage.

Through the proposed method, PIED Framework was developed, contributing for the characterization of impact projection in emergency environments. May 23, — Amphi 1. In the years following Chernobyl, many reports and projects reflected on how to improve emergency management processes in dealing with an accidental offsite release of radiation at a nuclear facility. A common observation was the need to address the inevitable uncertainties.

Suggestions were made and some were researched in some depth. The Fukushima Daiichi Disaster has led to further reflections. However, many uncertainties inherent in responding to a threatened or actual release remain unaddressed in the analyses that are conducted to support the emergency managers in their decision making.

They are often left to factor in allowances for the uncertainty through informal discussion and unsupported judgement. The organizers of crisis management exercises want scenario credible and pedagogical from the beginning until the end. For this reason, they call on an animation team that can use different communication channels. The aim of this article is to understand the different types of animation by analyzing the professional experience of the facilitators and the type of casting that can be done. Finally, a definition of four levels of animation is proposed.

These levels are associated with different types of messages and rhythm settings. The main objective is to improve the execution of the scenario during a crisis management training. Recent events have demonstrated the vulnerability of IT-systems of different companies, organisations or even governments to hacker attacks.

Simultaneously, information technologies have become increasingly established and important for institutions of various branches. With respect to modern terrorism developments, cyber-attacks may be used to physically harm critical infrastructures. This research-in-progress paper aims to develop a process model for data acquisition and support of decision making that seeks to enhance the security of public transportation in the context of counterterrorism. In the future, such models could improve the deci-sion process by comparing the effectiveness of different security measures.

May 22, — Room 0F Effective risk management begins with successful risk identification. Unfortunately, traditional approaches may lead to haphazard and incomplete results. To overcome this, we present a new integrative approach to improve risk identification that sequentially investigates protector-views and narrow scopes using literature review, ethnography, and subject matter expertise. This paper illustrates this approach by identifying man-made and natural threats to mass-gathering events in general, and stadium security as an example. Improving risk identification enhances resilience to known risks by enabling planning and development of targeted response strategies.

Working from a more complete portfolio of risk resilience strategies may also improve flexibility and agility to respond to new and emerging risks. Local citizens can use social media such as Twitter to share and receive critical information before, during, and after emergencies. However, standard methods of identifying local citizens on Twitter discover only a small proportion of local users in a geographic area. To better identify local citizens and their social media sources for local information, we explore the information infrastructure of a local community that is constituted prior to emergencies through the everyday social network curation of local citizens.

We hypothesize that investigating social network ties among local organizations and their followers may be key to identifying local citizens and understanding their local information seeking behaviors. Lastly, we discuss how social triangulation might support community preparedness by informing emergency communications planning. What about IT? Cooperation and interaction demands digital user skills. In an agile context, there is no time for learning in the doing implicating that multiple skills need to be practiced in forehand.

Since exercises is one way of enhancing skills needed in crises situations it is relevant to know what skills are trained during exercises. This review aims to understand what skills has been practiced during exercises executed in Sweden during until If ICT has been a part of practicing these skills, experience will be highlighted. Data was obtained from 15 evaluations from exercises including multiple actors.

Most exercises practiced collaboration, communication, information and shared situation awareness skills. Results showed that 4 of 15 has a specific goal concerning technology use. Exercises with explicit technology goals are effective for changing opinion about the tool in question. Actors are requesting more exercises specifically concerning routines and how to use technological tools. This paper presents work in progress on developing a meta-theory of C2 in emergency management. Most research in C2 focuses just on one or two scientific disciplines.

Just one paper has been found that gives a systematic overview of the science of C2. The approach taken employs entity-relationship modelling, yielding a set of scientific disciplines. These disciplines are compared with five military C2 doctrine publications. Doctrine found in at least four publications corresponded to the disciplines of decision theory, leadership theory, organizational theory, psychology, and the degree of delegation. Some topics not covered by the disciplines were found, indicating that analysis should be extended to C2 processes, resilience, and agility, permitting the development of guidance for practitioners.

Further work is needed to compare the disciplines with civilian doctrine.

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This paper analyses the social media communications surrounding the - series of winter storms in the UK. Three storms were selected for analysis over a sustained period of time; these were storms Desmond, Eva and Frank which made landfall within quick succession of one another. In this case study we examine communications relating to multiple hazards which include flooding, evacuation and weather warnings using mainstream media content such as news stories, and online content such as Twitter data.

Using a mixed method approach of content analysis combined with the application of a conceptual framework, we present i. We conclude by assessing how these barriers may be lessened during prolonged periods of crisis. Cities face a wide range of risks. Potential threats range from natural disasters and the relatively slow environmental change, to man-made issues like extremism.

To overcome such threats, cities ought to be resilient, capable of resisting problems, of adapting to new situations, and overcoming crises. Effective communication is particularly crucial for a resilient city. Rather than trusting that relevant stakeholders, municipal staff and citizens will intuitively communicate in the ideal way, cities should see communication as a strategic aspect of their resilience development. Thus, how resilient cities communicate should be strategically managed.

In this paper, we present immediate results from an ongoing European project called Smart Mature Resilience. In this project, we work with seven cities towards the ultimate goal of developing a Resilience Management Guideline for all European cities. Moreover, we intend to set up a resilience backbone in Europe, which will be driven by effective communication between cities.

May 22, — Room 0A By combining microblog conversion, manual production, and a control set, we created a web-based information stream providing valid, misleading, and irrelevant information to public information officers PIOs representing hospitals, fire departments, the local Red Cross, and city and county government officials.

Addressing the challenges in constructing this corpus constitutes an important step in providing experimental evidence that complements observational study, necessary for designing effective social media tools for the emergency response setting. Preliminary results in the context of an emergency preparedness exercise suggest how social media can participate in the work practice of a PIO concerning the assessment of the disaster and the dissemination of information within the emergency response organization and to the public. Simulation and serious games SSG are advocated as promising technologies supporting training and increasing the skills necessary to deal with complex and unexpected situations.

Based on an investigation of SSG use for fire fighter training in nine countries, this paper is examining key elements and success factors that can counteract potential obstacles and challenges of SSG implementation in organizations responsible for emergency management. Data comes from interviews and observations. By contrasting the different incentives and views regarding the SSG use, this paper contributes to a better understanding of challenges handling these technologies.

The results confirm many benefits of SSGs, and provide a broader understanding of integrating these technologies into organizational practices. Only by connecting the local, organizational strategies and user values with technology values the usage can be experienced as successful. This connection requirement is by far not obvious since values are formulated differently at the main stakeholders. Emergency response planning is a complex task due to multiple organizations involved, different planning considerations, etc.

Using artificial intelligence collaborative planning helps in the automatic planning for complex situations. Analyzing all impacting factors along with plans that are executable can facilitate the decision making in Emergency Operations Centers for an agile emergency response. A main component of a planner is a knowledge base. Although many systems are developed to support decision making in emergency response or recovery, they either focus on specific or small organizations, or rely on simulations. The multiplicity of the emergency response documents and their structure makes the knowledge acquisition complex.

In this paper, we explain the process of extracting knowledge based on hierarchical task networks and how it speeds up the reactivity to a disaster. The use of social media is not only part of everyday live but also appearing in crises and emergencies. Many studies focus on the concrete use of social media during a specific emergency, but the prevalence of social media, data access and published research studies allow the examination in a broader and more integrated manner.

This work-in-progress paper presents the results of a case study with the Fire Department Frankfurt which is one of the biggest and most modern fire departments in Germany.

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The findings relate to social media technologies, organizational structure and roles, information validation, staff skills and resources, and the importance of volunteer communities. In the next step, the results will be integrated into the frame of a comparative case study with the overall aim of examining the impact of social media on how emergency services respond and react in an emergency. Social media platforms have become a source of high volume, real-time information describing significant events in a timely fashion.

In this paper we describe a system for the real-time extraction of information from text and image content in Twitter messages and combine the spatio-temporal metadata of the messages to filter the data stream for emergency events and visualize the output on an interactive map. Twitter messages for a geographic region are monitored for flooding events by analysing the text content and images posted. Events detected are compared with a ground truth to see if information in social media correlates with actual events.

We propose an Intrusion Index as part of this prototype to facilitate ethical harvesting of data. A map layer is created by the prototype system that visualises the analysis and filtered Twitter messages by geolocation. We have been studying the standardization of an emergency-management support system mainly for natural disasters at the local-government level. Rapid and accurate judgment prevents the occurrence of new damage and the expansion of damage, and as a result resilience will increase. We investigated its applicability to emergency management for cyber incidents through a cyber-defense exercise.

Volunteered geographic information can be seen as valuable data for various applications such as within disas-ter management. OpenStreetMap data, for example, are contributed by remote mappers based on satellite im-agery and have increasingly been implemented in response actions to various disasters. Yet, the quality often depends on the local and country-specific knowledge of the mappers, which is required for performing the map-ping task.

Hence, the question is raised whether there is a possibility to train remote mappers with country-specific mapping instructions in order to improve the quality of OpenStreetMap data. An experiment is con-ducted with Geography students to evaluate the effect of additional material that is provided in wiki format. This pre-study gives hints for future designs of country-specific mapping instructions as well as the experiment design itself. Agility in crisis management information systems requires an iterative and flexible approach to assessing ethical, legal and social issues by Kroener, Inga; Watson, Hayley; Muraszkiewicz, Julia May 22, — Amphi 1.

This paper focuses on the assessment of ethical, legal and social issues ELSI in relation to agile information systems in the domain of crisis management. The authors analyse the differing needs of a move from a traditional approach to the development of information systems to an agile approach, which offers flexibility, adaptability and responds to the needs of users as the system develops. In turn, the authors argue that this development requires greater flexibility and an iterative approach to assessing ELSI.


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The authors provide an example from the Horizon EU-funded project iTRACK Integrated system for real-time TRACKing and collective intelligence in civilian humanitarian missions to exemplify this move to an iterative approach in practice, drawing on the process of undertaking an ethical and privacy impact assessment for the purpose of this project. This paper proposes a performance measurement definition to consider sustainable development principles in the humanitarian supply chain operations source, make, deliver.

Previous research has shown the challenge for humanitarian organizations to consider the three sustainability pillars people, planet and profit in their decision-making processes. Based on field research with the IFRC and a literature review on humanitarian performance measurement and sustainability, we define a set of criteria, objectives and Key Performance Indicators that translates sustainability concepts to concrete humanitarian operations.

Based on the Triple Bottom Line approach, the environmental and social dimensions are added to the economic dimension, which is standard in HSC literature and practice. One of the most used sources of information for fast and flexible crisis information is social media or crowdsourced data, as the information is rapidly disseminated, can reach a large amount of target audience and covers a wide variety of topics. However, the agility that these new methodologies enable comes at a price: ethics and privacy. This paper presents an analysis of the ethical risks and implications of using automated system that learn from social media data to provide intelligence in crisis management.

The paper presents a short overview on the use of social media data in crisis management to then highlight ethical implication of machine learning and social media data using an example scenario. In conclusion general mitigation strategies and specific implementation guidelines for the scenario under analysis are presented. Social Media monitoring has become a major issue in crisis and emergencies management. Indeed, social media may ease the sharing of information between citizens and Public Safety Organizations, but it also enables the rapid spreading of inaccurate information. As information is now provided and shared by anyone to anyone, information credibility is a major issue.

We propose an approach to detect rumors in social media. This paper describes our work on semantic graph based information fusion, enhanced with uncertainty management capabilities. The uncertainty management capability enables managing the different level of credibility of actors of an emergency different PSO officers and citizens. Functions for information synthesis, conflicting information detection and information evaluation were developed and test during experimentation campaigns.

The synthesis and conflicting information detection functionalities are very welcome by end-users. However, the uncertainty management is a combinatorial approach which remains a limitation for use with large amount of information. Vendor Managed Inventory, a concept successfully applied in commercial logistics, might be a possibility to enhance the effectiveness of humanitarian logistics operations.

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However, there is a lack of an appropriate assessment of the VMI applicability for humanitarian organizations. We propose an adjusted VMI Readiness Score for humanitarian logistics, a tool adapted from a commercial context for the specific requirements of a humanitarian scenario, to gain a general impression of the suitability of VMI. The score is exemplary applied to the IFRC and the results indicate that it is worthwhile to further investigate the applicability of VMI in humanitarian logistics.

Towards practical usage of domain adaptation algorithms in classifying disaster related tweets by Li, Hongmin; Caragea, Doina; Caragea, Cornelia May 22, — Room 0F Many machine learning techniques have been proposed to reduce the information overload in social media data during an emergency situation. However, the use of domain adaptation approaches in practice is sporadic at best. One reason is that domain adaptation algorithms have parameters that need to be tuned using labeled data from the target disaster, which is presumably not available.

To address this limitation, we perform a study on one domain adaptation approach with the goal of understanding how much source data is needed to obtain good performance in a practical situation, and what parameter values of the approach give overall good performance. The results of our study provide useful insights into the practical application of domain adaptation algorithms in real crisis situations.

In order to detect and control the critical potential risk source of railway more scientifically, more reasonably and more accurately in complex accident context, a knowledge modeling method of risk inter-relation is proposed based on ontology modeling of accident context. First, the mechanism of accident causation is summarized based on the accident case analysis.

Then, the knowledge model of accident cause is built based on ontology theory, including the ontology model of two context instances. Last but not least, the risk inter-relation rules with different dimensions of inter-relation patterns are inferred based on the instantiation of ontology model. Interoperability between these practices cannot be assumed. The one trend that appears in our interviews is that reliability and usefulness are based on trust, which is based on social networks: if you already know the person and they have been reliable in the past, then you trust the information that comes from them.

Not knowing sources often leads to withholding initial trust. This not only brings into question what it means to know a disaster, but it also reveals that how shared information is turned into knowledge and granted power is tightly bound to personal relations. To try to address these variations in information sharing practices as they work across organisations and borders, disaster responders are increasingly engaging with sophisticated information systems to share information and enable inter-organisational collaboration Harvard Humanitarian Initiative, One range of these technologies includes cloud-based warehouses that compile data from a variety of globally scattered emergency response agencies that can be searched as needed for information regarding a type of disaster.

They store everything from community phone calls providing specific, local details to general disaster plans and lessons learnt that enable one response agency to learn from the activities of another. As they gather and make data shareable, these technologies are intended to encourage among their users shared understandings, respect, and greater ability to work together.

In other words, the idea is that by using these disaster information technologies, not only will disaster planners and responders be better prepared because they have a wider breadth of information available, they will also build stronger communities, both among disaster responders and the publics that they serve.

Because these technologies have the ability to track sources and users, they are increasingly developed with an on-going focus on privacy and anonymity preserving techniques; techniques that are partly mandated by EU law. What is required of these techniques stands at the intersection of law, ethics, and organisational practices; an intersection that offers no clear directions or delimitations. At its most basic level, anonymity is achieved when those seeking information cannot link specific data back to any identifying features of an individual.

Colloquially, anonymity is treated as a Boolean status: personal details are either linkable to you or they are not. For example, Pfitzmann and Kohntopp describe anonymity as the state of an individual to be identified within a set of subjects. Legally, anonymity as a practice is intended to protect privacy. Privacy is similar to anonymity in that it keeps identifying features from being shared. But whereas for privacy those features exist somewhere in an information system but are just not made shareable, for anonymity they do not exist anywhere. Nevertheless, the main purpose of both concepts is to act as forms of personal protection.

Disasters 2.0 : The Application of Social Media Systems for Modern Emergency Management

They both offer individuals safety when there is the potential that threats to the person could occur if they can be identified. Doing so provides a strong basis for a secure public civic society where individuals do not feel at risk and thus can participate as needed in public life. However, in practice, such definitions are neither easy to evaluate nor easy to codify.

Claims to anonymity are always relational, as they are defined in relation to national security and the protection of the common good Nelson, Moreover, as more information is linked together, EU law has had to define a new category: pseudonymity. Pseudonymity, as a legal concept, acknowledges that though data might be anonymous in isolation e.

Theories, Practices and Examples for Community and Social Informatics

And combining data together is exactly what happens during disaster information sharing. By engaging with practices of anonymity, individuals are implicitly articulating relationships between identity, personal responsibility, political community, vulnerability and social authority Hansen and Nissembaum, Anonymity can relieve fear of persecution. The un-linkability of information to a person has the potential to provide a form of authority where socio-political power is otherwise lacking North, These complex interrelations between aim, definition, relativity, and value of anonymity as a practice are very visible in the difficulty the EU has in defining regulations around anonymity and related privacy issues.

What counts as these objective factors is situationally dependent: the amount of money and time needed to create and use algorithms to run a specific data set using a specific technology. In other words, whether something is considered legally acceptably anonymous is not about a specific, clearly defined de-linked state. It is about whether the practice of linking or delinking is worth the effort to the parties involved or of value to society. Part of the difficulty of a clear and clean definition in this area is that legal mechanisms to protect humanitarians within international law, both customary and codified, derive from regulations concerning armed conflict, war, and criminal acts Fast, One reason for this need is built into the causal nature of disasters: if disasters could be pre-defined in their entirety such that rules could be established, they would mostly be preventable.

But, of course, they are not. While disasters emerge within the structures of society, they also occur because of what is made invisible within the norms of society Davis, ; Hilgartner, Disasters are not exceptions to the norm; they are exceptions to expectations and understandings enabled by the norms. As such, disasters justify making exceptions to the rules. They carry with them belief that efficiently achieving response goals, following the spirit of the regulations, and meeting social expectations are of greater value than the letter of the law Zack, The transgressions are not just excusable but necessary for social cohesion and resilience.

But these decisions have the ability to shift the normative rules that structure power relations, inclusion, and exclusion Ignatieff, ; Sandin and Wester, The complexity of what it means to practice anonymity demonstrates the tension between notions of security and considerations of human rights, especially when different countries adopt different stances, even within the EU Scheppele, , or when trying to synthesize emergency power and liberal democracy Scheuerman, Ultimately, anonymity is bound to the situation of information searching; to the who, when, what, and medium of information sharing.

Anonymity is grounded not just in the capacity for physical links but also practical and political concerns like resource expenditures necessary to make those links. As highlighted by Nissenbaum , these tensions are inherent in the interaction between new technologies and anonymity: it is all a matter of degree and layering. In the uncertainty and unpredictability brought by disasters, this situational value judgement is a point of contention for emergency responders, as they try to manage their responsibility towards their communities and determine what kind of personal data practices can best produce community resilience Li and Goodchild, Is this produced through privacy or non-discrimination?

How much needs to be known, or not known, about an individual to ensure non-discrimination? Disaster information managers have to address individual needs while also considering the larger social context. They have to support community building but also build figurative firewalls that provide security to those within their bounds. As the solutions to these problems change from one situation to the next, so, too, does the understanding of what anonymity is, what it provides, and what it protects.

Exploring how anonymity is practised in engagements with disaster IT systems can help deepen the understanding of the intricate relationships between vulnerability, community, protection, and authority. These many interoperable uncertainties faced by disaster responders in the EU have led to an EU-wide commonplace practice of providing a grade to information. This grade represents both the accuracy and the importance of the information coming in.

Grading can help responders determine how urgent the situation is, what kind of corroboration is needed, how quickly an issue will disrupt the basic functions of a given society, and what kinds of actions to take. Even more, this type of determination can help responders know when they can and should make exceptions in how they engage with the data. If information is graded as highly urgent and as potentially impacting a large part of a society, then it is easier for disaster responders to justify the need to work in the legally flexible framework of exceptions.

How the practitioners define these grades is directly tied to the ability to identify their sources. However, if data is valued more when the source is known, what happens to urgent anonymous data? Knowing who provided the information matters in relation to how quickly the information becomes valued. This is also true for a member of the UK ambulance service that responds by sending out paramedics to emergency medical calls throughout a region, who in answer to a question stated:.

A: Quality assure it? Generally where the data has come from. Have to get to know the people - because what may be a cardiac arrest for one person is a minor scratch to another. If there is no history with or of the author of the information, then the information is likely to remain low on a list of things to deal with. While providing data anonymously can protect against a range of surveillance issues and support necessary risk-taking, it can also limit the production of shared-meaning. The integration of personal information with civil interactions is necessary in order to participate in a community Nelson, This is partly because identity carries with it a history of engagements that form the foundation of social dealings Fine, But the problem is that not all information comes from these identifiable key persons.

Sometimes it just comes from a local citizen or from a member of another agency who has never had any interaction with these services before. This data is very difficult to grade. A UK Police Chief, who during disasters deals with protection of life and property and preserving peace, stated that it is very difficult to provide grades because:.

People want to ring in anonymously, write in anonymously or e-mail anonymously as much as you can do. People will either trust us or not, or trust other people or not. Anonymity could provide protection and security to vulnerable individuals by limiting who can access their identity or the situations in which it can be revealed Puzar et al. But the assumption behind the latter is that it keeps the source and the disaster responder at low risk and low liability for their actions, as it follows proper protocol and supports formal decision-making.

But this takes time, which could lead to larger community-based risks due to inaction on the information as it works its way through the grading protocols. Information provided by anonymous sources goes into a data warehouse and waits, often unused, until there is more information to back up the concern or more information to provide context to help balance the lack of details about the source.

The grade will change when multiple reports start to be connected together, such as when more than one anonymous persons report the same issue of concern or more than one information system is connected together that each contain a similar report. But this solution relies on some assumptions: all the information reaches the same place in a timely manner, such as the same warehouse; all the information is comparable with little effort in terms of time and money since otherwise the links that produce value will not be made; and that these acts of combining data will not produce situations of pseudonymity, in which anonymous individuals can be identified as a result of the interconnection of the various data points.

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